5. Completion of the model. Extraction of the groups of elements.
5.1. It is desirable to allocate an individual place in space to groups of the periodic system. So that the elements of different groups of any period with same outermost subshells do not stand on the same vertical of, say, number 5 (B, IIIA group) and 8 (O, VIA group), 40 (Zr, IVB group) and 44 (Ru, VIIIB group), 95 Am and 102 No) and do overlap viewing from above, it is possible to displace the building-blocks located below in these pairs in the horizontal plane as follows:
Figure 18. The pyramidal extended system of chemical elements. Updating 3. The top projection.
Vertical blocks of the system are moved apart to give free space where elements of each period located below aim. The arrows reflect subshells filling: one arrow designates a not coupled electron, two arrows - coupled ones. Each square in the indicated (top) projection corresponds to an individual group of elements.
Unfortunately, the complete three-dimensional image of such a modified system looks very fragmented and split. The loss of solidity makes it difficult to perceive the whole design.
5.2. To reflect geometrically serial numbers of elements, it is possible to displace them in a vertical direction so that the individual elements should form a screw ladder, where a one step descent means increase of the serial number of the element by one. (It is not reflected in figures).
Thus, the three-dimensional design of the periodic system of elements is built. It is easy to see the homology with the traditional periodic table and to designate the basic structural elements.
It is known, that by filling electron subshells there are some infringements of the general rule. The elements 24 Cr, 29 Cu, 41 Nb, 42 Mo, 43 Tc, 44 Ru, 45 Rh, 46 Pd, 57 La, 64 Gd, 78 Pt, 79 Au, 89 Ac, 90 Th, 91 Pa, 92 U, 93 Ne, 96 Cm, 110 Uun, 111 Uuu have deviations from the general order of filling electron subshells. Lanthanides and the actinides have the singularities of filling electron subshells
To reflect these singularities (if we want to observe conformity of
an element positionand of the number of electrons in the subshell) it is
necessary to displace exclusive elements on the appropriate vertical and
horizontal and somehow reflect the order of filling electron subshells.
For example, the complete electronic configuration can be presented as
a graph, as a route through last elements ofevery subshell from hydrogen
to a considered element. In case of infringement of the rule of filling
electron subshells it is possible to designate an individual route. But
at this moment it is not the task of the present work meant for emphasizing
the general symmetric order of the periodic law.